ADC0802, ADC0803, ADC0804
The device may be operated in the free-running mode by con-
necting INTR to the WR input with CS = 0. To ensure start-up
under all possible conditions, an external WR pulse is required
during the ﬁrst power-up cycle. A conversion-in-process can
be interrupted by issuing a second start command.
The converter is started by having CS and WR simultaneously
low. This sets the start ﬂip-ﬂop (F/F) and the resulting “1” level
resets the 8-bit shift register, resets the Interrupt (INTR) F/F
and inputs a “1” to the D ﬂip-ﬂop, DFF1, which is at the input
end of the 8-bit shift register. Internal clock signals then trans-
fer this “1” to the Q output of DFF1. The AND gate, G1, com-
bines this “1” output with a clock signal to provide a reset
signal to the start F/F. If the set signal is no longer present
(either WR or CS is a “1”), the start F/F is reset and the 8-bit
shift register then can have the “1” clocked in, which starts the
conversion process. If the set signal were to still be present,
this reset pulse would have no effect (both outputs of the start
F/F would be at a “1” level) and the 8-bit shift register would
continue to be held in the reset mode. This allows for asyn-
chronous or wide CS and WR signals.
After the “1” is clocked through the 8-bit shift register (which
completes the SAR operation) it appears as the input to
DFF2. As soon as this “1” is output from the shift register, the
AND gate, G2, causes the new digital word to transfer to the
Three-State output latches. When DFF2 is subsequently
clocked, the Q output makes a high-to-low transition which
causes the INTR F/F to set. An inverting buffer then supplies
the INTR output signal.
When data is to be read, the combination of both CS and RD
being low will cause the INTR F/F to be reset and the three-
state output latches will be enabled to provide the 8-bit digital
Digital Control Inputs
The digital control inputs (CS, RD, and WR) meet standard
TTL logic voltage levels. These signals are essentially equiva-
lent to the standard A/D Start and Output Enable control sig-
nals, and are active low to allow an easy interface to
microprocessor control busses. For non-microprocessor
based applications, the CS input (pin 1) can be grounded and
the standard A/D Start function obtained by an active low
pulse at the WR input (pin 3). The Output Enable function is
achieved by an active low pulse at the RD input (pin 2).
The analog comparisons are performed by a capacitive
charge summing circuit. Three capacitors (with precise ratioed
values) share a common node with the input to an auto-
zeroed comparator. The input capacitor is switched between
VlN(+) and VlN(-), while two ratioed reference capacitors are
switched between taps on the reference voltage divider string.
The net charge corresponds to the weighted difference
between the input and the current total value set by the suc-
cessive approximation register. A correction is made to offset
the comparison by 1/2 LSB (see Figure 11A).
Analog Differential Voltage Inputs and Common-Mode
This A/D gains considerable applications ﬂexibility from the ana-
log differential voltage input. The VlN(-) input (pin 7) can be used
to automatically subtract a ﬁxed voltage value from the input
reading (tare correction). This is also useful in 4mA - 20mA cur-
rent loop conversion. In addition, common-mode noise can be
reduced by use of the differential input.
The time interval between sampling VIN(+) and VlN(-) is 41/2
clock periods. The maximum error voltage due to this slight
time difference between the input voltage samples is given by:
∆VE ( MAX )
∆VE is the error voltage due to sampling delay,
VPEAK is the peak value of the common-mode voltage,
fCM is the common-mode frequency.
a 60Hz common-mode
clock, fCLK, keeping this
error to 1/4
(~5mV) would allow a common-mode voltage, VPEAK, given
VPEAK = -------(---2----π---f--C----M-----)---(--4----.-5----)------- ,
VPEAK = -(--5-----×-(--6--1--.-02----–8--3-)---)(--(6---6-0--4-)--0-(--4--×--.-5--1--)-0----3----) ≅ 1.9V.
The allowed range of analog input voltage usually places
more severe restrictions on input common-mode voltage
levels than this.
An analog input voltage with a reduced span and a relatively
large zero offset can be easily handled by making use of the
differential input (see Reference Voltage Span Adjust).
Analog Input Current
The internal switching action causes displacement currents to
ﬂow at the analog inputs. The voltage on the on-chip capaci-
tance to ground is switched through the analog differential
input voltage, resulting in proportional currents entering the
VIN(+) input and leaving the VIN(-) input. These current tran-
sients occur at the leading edge of the internal clocks. They
rapidly decay and do not inherently cause errors as the on-
chip comparator is strobed at the end of the clock perIod.
Input Bypass Capacitors
Bypass capacitors at the inputs will average these charges
and cause a DC current to ﬂow through the output resistances
of the analog signal sources. This charge pumping action is
worse for continuous conversions with the VIN(+) input voltage
at full scale. For a 640kHz clock frequency with the VIN(+)
input at 5V, this DC current is at a maximum of approximately
5µA. Therefore, bypass capacitors should not be used at
the analog inputs or the VREF/2 pin for high resistance
sources (>1kΩ). If input bypass capacitors are necessary for
noise ﬁltering and high source resistance is desirable to mini-
mize capacitor size, the effects of the voltage drop across this
input resistance, due to the average value of the input current,
can be compensated by a full scale adjustment while the
given source resistor and input bypass capacitor are both in
place. This is possible because the average value of the input
current is a precise linear function of the differential input
voltage at a constant conversion rate.