7.4 General Purpose Register File
The Register File is optimized for the AVR Enhanced RISC instruction set. In order to achieve the required
performance and flexibility, the following input/output schemes are supported by the Register File:
One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input
Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input
Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result input
One 16-bit output operand and one 16-bit result input
Figure 7-2 shows the structure of the 32 general purpose working registers in the CPU.
Figure 7-2. AVR CPU General Purpose Working Registers.
X-register Low Byte
X-register High Byte
Y-register Low Byte
Y-register High Byte
Z-register Low Byte
Z-register High Byte
Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers, and most of them are
single cycle instructions.
As shown in Figure 7-2, each register is also assigned a data memory address, mapping them directly into the
first 32 locations of the user Data Space. Although not being physically implemented as SRAM locations, this
memory organization provides great flexibility in access of the registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers
can be set to index any register in the file.