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ATMEGA1281V Datasheet

8-bit Atmel Microcontroller

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7. AVR CPU Core
7.1 Introduction
This section discusses the AVR core architecture in general. The main function of the CPU core is to ensure cor-
rect program execution. The CPU must therefore be able to access memories, perform calculations, control
peripherals, and handle interrupts.
7.2 Architectural Overview
Figure 7-1. Block Diagram of the AVR Architecture
Data Bus 8-bit
Flash
Program
Memory
Instruction
Register
Instruction
Decoder
Control Lines
Program
Counter
Status
and Control
32 x 8
General
Purpose
Registers
ALU
Interrupt
Unit
SPI
Unit
Watchdog
Timer
Analog
Comparator
Data
SRAM
EEPROM
I/O Module1
I/O Module 2
I/O Module n
I/O Lines
In order to maximize performance and parallelism, the AVR uses a Harvard architecture – with separate memories
and buses for program and data. Instructions in the program memory are executed with a single level pipelining.
While one instruction is being executed, the next instruction is pre-fetched from the program memory. This concept
enables instructions to be executed in every clock cycle. The program memory is In-System Reprogrammable
Flash memory.
The fast-access Register File contains 32 × 8-bit general purpose working registers with a single clock cycle
access time. This allows single-cycle Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) operation. In a typical ALU operation, two oper-
ATmega640/V-1280/V-1281/V-2560/V-2561/V [DATASHEET]
2549Q–AVR–02/2014
11
ATMEL
ATMEL



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